Author Archives: lene

[conference] ICDL-EPIROB 2019 – Mapping the Self

Janna Gottwald at the 9th Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics (Workshop “Mapping the Self – Infants, Robots, and Modeling”)

Yesterday, I presented my recent work (with Gustaf Gredebäck & Marcus Lindskog) in Oslo, Norway. This full-day workshop “Mapping the Self – Infants, Robots, and Modeling” organised by Daniela Corbetta (Tennessee, USA), Matej Hoffmann (Prague, Czech Republic), Jeffrey Lockman (New Orleans, USA), and Verena Hafner (Berlin, Germany) brought together scientists working on body mapping, peripersonal space, and the sense of body ownership.

From both, a psychological and a robotics perspectives, we discussed infant/child motor development, the emerging sense of a bodily self, and how these relate to models of behaviour.

Here you find the abstract, the related paper (open access), and the data.

Gottwald, Gredebäck, & Lindskog (2019)

[publication] Two-step actions in infancy

Infant reaching for a toy

How do infants perform two-step actions, as for example reaching for a toy to place it somewhere else? Do they plan their reach based on what’s happening next? Or do they tailor their placing action based on the previous reach?

We just published a modelling paper addressing this question.

Gottwald, J.M., Gredebäck, G., & Lindskog, M. (2019). Two-step actions in infancy – the TWAIN model. Experimental Brain Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05604-0.
📖 online copy (publisher, open access)

The answer is: Both! We show that in addition to planning effects, there are transfer effects when 1.5 year-olds carry out these two-step actions. In this paper, we propose a model describing movement durations in reach-to-place sequences.

Here, you can find the data related to the publication at the Open Science Framework.

[conference] Symposium talks @SRCD in Baltimore, USA (March 2019)

Janna Gottwald (Uppsala, Sweden), Michelle Maurer (Bern, Switzerland), Derek Becker (North Carolina, USA), Annina Zysset (Zurich, Switzerland)

(1) Association Between Specific Motor Skills and Executive Functions from Infancy Through Kindergarten age

Annina Zysset (Children’s Hospital Zurich) and Claudia Roebers (Bern University) organised a symposium on the relation between motor skills and executive functions in infancy and early childhood. Michelle Maurer (Bern University), Derek Becker (Western Carolina University), and I contributed. My talk was entitled An Embodied Account of Executive Function Development in Infancy.

Janna Gottwald @SRCD talking about dynamic systems: Skills emerge as result of interaction of individual, task and environmental constraints

SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACT: There is accumulated evidence for an association between motor skills and executive functions (EFs). However, not much is known about the underlying mechanisms and nature of this association or change of the association across childhood lifespan. This symposium aims to extend the knowledge of cross-sectional and longitudinal association between different motor skills and EFs from early infancy through kindergarten age, using different approaches. Paper 1 will link prospective motor control and EFs in infancy. Results from 18-month-olds indicate that prospective motor control is correlated with simple inhibition and working memory, but not complex inhibition. These results will be discussed within an embodied-cognitive framework, together with ongoing longitudinal research. Paper 2 studies the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of fine motor skills, pure motor skills, motor inhibition and EFs in preschool children. Results show that – even when including environmental factors – fine motor skills are among the strongest predictors of EFs in 2-to-6-year-olds. Paper 3 assumes that the link between performance in motor and EFs tasks is driven by task novelty and complexity. The examination of motor control and EFs tasks in 5-to-6-year-olds seems to confirm this hypothesis, indicating that EFs are more required in high demand motor control tasks, and thus, explain the stronger correlations. Paper 4 investigates the cross lag effect of visuomotor skills and EFs between the Fall and Spring of prekindergarten, and Spring of prekindergarten to the Fall of kindergarten. Moreover, the paper will examine the interaction between visuomotor skills and EFs on growth in math.

(2) The growing body: a multisensory challenge

Dorothy Cowie (Durham University) organised a symposium on the development of body representationAndrew Bremner (Birmingham University), Lucilla Cardinali (Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia), Alessia Tonelli (Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia), and I contributed. My talk was entitled This feels like my hand! The contributions of posture and size to embodiment across development.

SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACT: The growth of the physical body is almost synonymous with childhood development. The body changes in size and relative proportion, growing unevenly and over many years. Thus, the child is in a state of constant flux and uncertainty regarding the sole medium through which she interacts with both the physical and social world. We ask how the growing child understands her own body in this challenging context. Paper 1 introduces the idea that multisensory interactions facilitate body understanding even in early infancy, showing that visual-tactile correlations are expected and used in the first year of life. Paper 2 shows that in understanding her own body, the developing child not only uses multisensory information but also prior knowledge of body posture and size. Paper 3 reveals the significant distortions that are nevertheless present in the child’s perceived body size and judgements of her action capabilities. Papers 2 and 3 both suggest that multiple, compartmentalised body representations appear to exist in the developing brain. Paper 4 finally considers developing body representations in the different developmental context of blindness and low vision. It reveals the impact upon the multisensory understanding of the body; and shows that perception can be rehabilitated using a sound-based wearable device. We will schedule ample time for questions, and for an integrated discussion following the talks. In this way we aim to highlight state of the art in the field, and to generate new questions for research in, and beyond, this topic.

Janna Gottwald @SRCD presenting raincloud-plotted data from recent work with Dorothy Cowie. Preprint here: https://psyarxiv.com/62aqc/

[conference] Upcoming Symposium at Jean Piaget Society 48th Annual Conference 2018 in Amsterdam

The Dynamics of Development: Process, (Inter-)Action, & Complexity

Symposium 28: Motor planning and its relation to executive functions across the lifespan

 Organised by Janna M. Gottwald (Durham University) 

 

Abstract: Motor development is crucial for developing children to interact with the world in a goal-directed way, to learn about the environment, and to plan their actions. Thereby, motor development is assumed to be closely linked to cognitive development. This is for example illustrated by the fact that arising new motor skills enable new forms of interaction with the world and could therefore, along with these new experiences, foster slower developing cognitive functions, such as executive functions (i.e. inhibition, working memory, shifting). The onsets of reaching and grasping in infancy for instance, offer new opportunities for action, such as object manipulation, and opportunities to acquire knowledge, such as object and action knowledge.

This active exploration of the world enables experiencing the body-external world (i.e. object knowledge), as well as perceiving one’s own body movements and the interplay of different effectors (i.e. action knowledge).   As soon as executive functions have sufficiently developed, they can in turn have impacts on motor performance. Working memory and inhibitory control for instance can positively influence manual dexterity and motor planning in middle childhood. In adulthood, executive functions can help to reduce the risk of falls in complex gait situations, and in older adults, changes in executive functioning are associated with changes in different motor skills, as well as in motor planning.

This symposium will address the development of motor skills, motor planning, and executive functions in five talks. Thereby, it will first focus on the developmental pattern of motor planning skills during childhood (especially the critical age period of middle childhood) and on different measures and tasks to assess motor behaviour and planning skills: The first talk is about general motor skills and motor planning in middle childhood (Bianca Jovanovic); the subsequent talk will address motor planning in middle childhood and adulthood (Oliver Herbort). The symposium will secondly address potential interdependencies of motor planning with the development of executive functions across the lifespan – in infancy (Janna Gottwald), childhood (Matthias Weigelt) and in old age (Tino Stöckel). Different perspectives on the characteristics of this relation will be discussed.

This symposium will take place in 
Hotel CASA, Eerste Ringdijkstaat 4, 1097 BC, Amsterdam,
on 2 June 2018, 11:00-12:30.

JPS Conference Programme 
JPS Conference Webpage

[media] article in magazine Förskolan

The Swedish magazine of the teacher federation Förskolan interviewed me about my study published in Psychological Science (2016), where my colleagues and I demonstrated an association between prospective motor control and executive functions in 18-month-olds. It was a great experience talking to Linda Kling! You can read her interview “Motorik viktig för inlärning” here (in Swedish).

[media] article in online magazine Special Nest

The Swedish online magazine Special Nest interviewed me about my study published in Psychological Science (2016), where my colleagues and I demonstrated an association between prospective motor control and executive functions in 18-month-olds. It was a nice experience talking to Thomas Gustafsson! You can find his article “Motorik kopplas till exekutiva funktioner hos spädbarn” here (in Swedish).

[publication] review on prospective motor control

Measuring prospective motor control in action development

Gottwald, J.M. (2017). Measuring prospective motor control in action development. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. Advance online publication. Find this article here

Abstract: This article critically reviews kinematic measures of prospective motor control. Prospective motor control, the ability to anticipatorily adjust movements with respect to task demands and action goals, is an important process involved in action planning. In manual object manipulation tasks, prospective motor control has been studied in various ways mainly using motion-tracking. For this matter, it is crucial to pinpoint the early part of the movement that purely reflects prospective (feed-forward) processes, but not feedback influences from the unfolding movement. One way of defining this period is to rely on a fixed time criterion; another is to base it flexibly on the inherent structure of each movement itself. Velocity – as one key characteristic of human movement – offers such a possibility and describes the structure of movements in a meaningful way. Here, I argue for the latter way of investigating prospective motor control by applying the measure of peak velocity of the first movement unit. I further discuss movement units and their significance in motor development of infants and contrast the introduced measure with other peak-velocity related measures and duration related measures.